Nomenclature


Tongue, Lip, Palate, Pharynx, Airway, Salivary Glands and Lymph Nodes


Terminology for Use in AVDC Case Logs

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Anatomy of the Tongue, Lips, Cheek and Palate

Abnormalities of the Palate

Anatomy of the Nose, Pharynx, Tonsils and Face

Nasal, Pharyngeal and Facial Abnormalities

Equine Specific Terminology for Nose and Sinuses

Anatomy of the Salivary Glands

Salivary Glands Abnormalities and Diagnostic Procedures

Lymph Nodes

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Abbeviations to be used in AVDC Case Logs are shown in (blue brackets)

Anatomy of the Tongue, Lips, Cheek and Palate

Tongue (LIN): Fleshy muscular organ in the mouth used for tasting, licking, swallowing, articulating and thermoregulation; use LIN/X for tongue resection

Lip/cheek (LIP): Fleshy parts that form the upper and lower edges of the opening of the mouth/side of the face below the eye; use LIP/X for lip/cheek resection

Hard palate: The part of the palate supported by bone.
The midline of the hard palate is not a symphysis but is formed by the interincisive suture, the median palatine suture of the palatine processes of the maxillary bones, and the median suture of the palatine bones.
References: Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Palatine rugae: Transverse ridges of mucosa on the hard palate

Incisive papilla: Elevation of mucosa at the rostral end of the median line of junction of the halves of the palate, concealing the orifices of the incisive ducts

Soft palate: The caudal part of palate that is not supported by bone


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Abnormalities of the Palate


Palate defect (PDE): Acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities along the hard or soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with PDE/R

Cleft lip (CFL): Congenital longitudinal defect of the upper lip or upper lip and most rostral hard palate (regardless of location); surgical repair is abbreviated with CFL/R

Cleft palate (CFP): Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFP/R

Cleft soft palate (CFS): Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the soft palate only; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFS/R

Unilateral soft palate defect (CFSU): Congenital longitudinal defect of the soft palate on one side only; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFSU/R

Soft palate hypoplasia (CFSH): Congenital decrease in length of the soft palate; surgical lengthening of the soft palate is abbreviated with CFSH/R

Traumatic cleft palate (CFT): Acquired longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and/or soft palate resulting from trauma; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFT/R

Oronasal fistula (ONF): Acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities along the upper dental arch; surgical repair is abbreviated with ONF/R

Oroantral fistula (OAF): Acquired communication between the oral cavity and maxillary sinus in pigs, ruminants and equines (also called oromaxillary fistula in equines); surgical repair is abbreviated with OAF/R

Elongated soft palate (ESP): Congenital increase in length of the soft palate; surgical reduction of the soft palate is abbreviated with ESP/R

Palatal obturator (POB): Prosthetic device for temporary or permanent closure of palate defects

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Anatomy of the Nose, Pharynx, Tonsil and Face


Palatine tonsil (TON): Tonsil related to the lateral attachment of the soft palate

Tonsillar fossa: Depression containing the palatine tonsil

Semilunar fold: Mucosal fold from the ventrolateral aspect of the soft palate, forming the medial wall of the tonsillar fossa

Pharynx (PHA): Throat caudal to the oral cavity and divided into nasopharynx and oropharynx

Fauces: The fauces are defined as the lateral walls of the oropharynx that are located medial to the palatoglossal folds. The areas lateral to the palatoglossal fold, commonly involved in feline stomatitis, are not the fauces.
References: Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Nose/nasal (N): Referring to the part of the face or facial region that contains the nostrils and nasal cavity

Equine specific nasal and sinus terminolgy

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Nasal, Pharyngeal and Facial Abnormalities and Procedures


Discharge (DI): Action of discharging a liquid or other substance

Right nasal discharge (DI/ND): Discharge of material from the right nostril

Left nasal discharge (DI/NS): Discharge of material from the left nostril

Bilateral nasal discharge (DI/NU): Discharge of material from both nostrils

Right ocular discharge (DI/OD): Discharge of material from the right eye

Left ocular discharge (DI/OS): Discharge of material from the left eye

Bilateral ocular discharge (DI/OU): Discharge of material from both eyes

Naris stenosis (NAS): Pinched or narrow nostril

Nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS): Constriction or narrowing of the nasopharyngeal passage; use NPS/R for nasopharyngeal stenosis repair

Nasopharyngeal polyp (N/POL): Benign mass emanating from the auditory tube into the nasopharynx, often having their origin in the middle ear

Nasal SCC (N/SCC): Nasal squamous cell carcinoma; use abbreviations under OM for other nasal tumors

Nasal lavage (N/LAV): ): Rinsing of the nasal and nasopharyngeal passages

Rhinoscopy (N/EN): Endoscopic imaging of nasal and nasopharyngeal tissues

Naroplasty (NAS/R): Surgical correction of a stenotic naris

Enophthalmos (ENO): Recession of the eyeball (within the orbit)

Exophthalmos (EXO): Protrusion of the eyeball (out of the orbit)

Equine specific nasal and sinus terminolgy
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Anatomy of the Salivary Glands

Salivary gland (SG): An exocrine gland secreting saliva

Domestic animals have paired mandibular glands (or mandibular salivary glands) and mandibular lymph nodes. The term "submandibular," as used in humans, is incorrect due the difference in topography of these structures.

Domestic animals also have paired Parotid, Sublingual and Zygomatic glands.

References: Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.


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Salivary Gland Abnormalities and Diagnostic Procedures


Ptyalism (PTY): Excessive flow of saliva; also called hypersalivation

Sublingual sialocele (SG/MUC/S): Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the sublingual region; also called ranula

Pharyngeal sialocele (SG/MUC/P): Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the pharyngeal region

Cervical sialocele (SG/MUC/C): Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the intermandibular or cervical region

Mucus retention cyst (SG/RC): Intraductal mucus accumulation with duct dilation resulting from obstruction of salivary flow (e.g., due to a sialolith)

Sialadenitis (SG/IN): Inflammation of a salivary gland.

Sialadenosis (SG/ADS): Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic enlargement of a salivary gland; also called sialosis

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (SG/NEC): Squamous metaplasia of the salivary gland ducts and lobules with ischemic necrosis of the salivary gland lobules; also called salivary gland infarction

Salivary gland adencarcinoma (SG/ADC): Adenocarcinoma arising from salivary glandular or ductal tissue; use abbreviations under OM for other salivary gland tumors.

Sialocele (or salivary mucocele): Clinical term indicating a swelling that contains saliva and including mucus extravasation phenomenon and mucus retention cyst

Mucus extravasation phenomenon: Accumulation of saliva that leaked from a salivary duct into subcutaneous or submucosal tissue and consequent tissue reaction to saliva

Sialolithiasis (SG/SI): Condition characterized by the presence of one or more sialoliths, a calcareous concretion or calculus (stone) in the salivary duct or gland

Sialography (RAD/SG): Radiographic technique where a radiopaque contrast agent is infused into the ductal system of a salivary gland before imaging is performed.

Salivary gland resection (SG/X): Surgical removal of a salivary gland

Marsupialization (MAR): Exteriorization of an enclosed cavity by resecting a portion of the cutaneous or mucosal wall and suturing the cut edges of the remaining wall to adjacent edges of the skin or mucosa, thereby creating a pouch; use SG/MAR for marsupialization of a sublingual or pharyngeal sialocele.


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Lymph Nodes

Lymph node (LN): Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes and has a capsule; filtering lymph fluid, as afferent lymph vessels enter the node and efferent lymph vessels leave the node

Tonsil (TON): Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes but lacks a capsule; not filtering lymph fluid, as there are no afferent lymph vessels

Lymph node enlargement (LN/E): Palpable or visual enlargement of a lymph node

Regional metastasis (MET/R): Neoplastic spread to regional lymph node(s) confirmed by biopsy

Distant metastasis (MET/D): Neoplastic spread to distant sites confirmed by biopsy or diagnostic imaging

Lymph node resection (LN/X): Surgical removal of a lymph node
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