Nomenclature

Abnormalities of Teeth: Types and Management

Topics available:

Anatomy and Structure of Teeth
Enamel Abnormalities
Tooth Formation Abnormalities
Tooth Resorption
Fractures of Teeth
Endodontic Terminology
Operative and Prosthodontic Dentistry
Occlusal Abnormalities

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Abbeviations to be used in AVDC Case Logs are shown in (blue brackets)



Enamel Abnormalities


Abrasion (AB): Tooth wear caused by contact of a tooth with a non-dental object

Attrition (AT): Tooth wear caused by contact of a tooth with another tooth

Erosion (ER): Demineralization of tooth substance due to external acids

Caries (CA): Degradation of dental hard tissue caused by demineralization due to acids released during bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates

Enamel defect (ED): Lesion affecting the structural integrity of enamel

Enamel hypoplasia (E/H): refers to inadequate deposition of enamel matrix. This can affect one or several teeth and may be focal or multifocal. The crowns of affected teeth can have areas of normal enamel next to areas of hypoplastic or missing enamel.

Enamel hypomineralization (E/HM): refers to inadequate mineralization of enamel matrix. This often affects several or all teeth. The crowns of affected teeth are covered by soft enamel that may be worn rapidly.

Enamel infraction (T/FX/EI): Incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance

Enamel fracture (T/FX/EF): Fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel



Enamel hypoplasia                               Enamel hypomineralization

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Tooth Formation Abnormalities


Persistent deciduous tooth (DT/P): A deciduous tooth that is present when it should have exfoliated

Supernumerary tooth (T/SN): Presence of an extra tooth (also called hyperdontia)

Hypodontia (HYP): Developmental absence of few teeth

Oligodontia (OLI): Developmental absence of numerous teeth

Anodontia (ANO): Failure of all teeth to develop

Macrodontia (T/MAC): Tooth/teeth are larger than normal

Microdontia (T/MIC): Tooth/teeth are smaller than normal

Transposition (T/TRA): Two teeth that have exchanged position

Fusion (T/FUS): Combining of adjacent tooth germs and resulting in partial or complete union of the developing teeth; also called synodontia

Concrescence (T/CCR): Fusion of the roots of two or more teeth at the cementum level

Fused roots (T/FDR): Fusion of roots of the same tooth

Gemination (T/GEM): A single tooth budís attempt to divide partially (cleft of the crown) or completely (presence of an identical supernumerary tooth); also called twinning

Supernumerary root (T/SR): Presence of an extra root

Dilaceration (T/DIL): Disturbance in tooth development, causing the crown or root to be abruptly bent or crooked

Dens invaginatus (T/DEN): Invagination of the outer surface of a tooth into the interior, occurring in either the crown (involving the pulp chamber) or the root (involving the root canal); also called dens in dente

Enamel pearl (E/P): Small, nodular growth on the root of a tooth made of enamel with or without a small dentin core and sometimes a covering of cementum

Unerupted tooth (T/U): Tooth that has not perforated the oral mucosa

Embedded tooth (T/E): Unerupted tooth covered in bone whose eruption is compromised by lack of eruptive force

Impacted tooth (T/I): Unerupted or partially erupted tooth whose eruption is prevented by contact with a physical barrier

Dentigerous cyst (DTC): Odontogenic cyst initially formed around the crown of a partially erupted or unerupted tooth; also called follicular cyst or tooth-containing cyst; removal is abbreviated DTC/R

Folliculitis (FOL): Inflammation of the follicle of a developing tooth

Pericoronitis (PEC): Inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth

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Tooth Resorption



Tooth resorption is classified based on the severity of the resorption (Stages 1-5) and on the location of the resorption (Types 1-3).
The AVDC classification of tooth resorption is based on the assumption that tooth resorption is a progressive condition.

Tooth resorption (TR): Resorption of dental hard tissue

Internal resorption (RR:) Tooth resorption originating within the pulp cavity

Stages of Tooth Resorption

Stage 1 (TR 1):  Mild dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel). TR1  
Stage 2 (TR 2): Moderate dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that does not extend to the pulp cavity). TR2 TR2 TR2 radiograph
Stage 3 (TR 3): Deep dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth retains its integrity. TR3

TR3 clinical

TR3 radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4a Crown and root are equally affected;

TR4a TR4a radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4b: Crown is more severely affected than the root;

TR4b

TR4b clinical

TR4b radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4):: Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4c: Root is more severely affected than the crown.

TR4c TR4c clinical TR4c radiograph
Stage 5 (TR 5): Remnants of dental hard tissue are visible only as irregular radiopacities, and gingival covering is complete. TR5 TR5 clinical

TR5 radiograph

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For low resolution printer-friendly versions of the full sets of tooth resorption images, click TR Diagrams or TR Clinical Images.

Types of Resorption Based on Radiographic Appearance

Type 1 (T1): On a radiograph of a tooth with type 1 (T1) appearance, a focal or multifocal radiolucency is present in the tooth with otherwise normal radiopacity and normal periodontal ligament space.

Type 2 (T2): On a radiograph of a tooth with type 2 (T2) appearance, there is narrowing or disappearance of the periodontal ligament space in at least some areas and decreased radiopacity of part of the tooth.

Type 3 (T3): On a radiograph of a tooth with type 3 (T3) appearance, features of both type 1 and type 2 are present in the same tooth. A tooth with this appearance has areas of normal and narrow or lost periodontal ligament space, and there is focal or multifocal radiolucency in the tooth and decreased radiopacity in other areas of the tooth.





Radiographic Examples of Types of Tooth Resorption:

Copyright of these images is owned by AVDC. Download of these images and use in printed materials or presentations is permitted without charge provided that the source is cited as © AVDC ģ, used with permission. The diagrams are provided courtesy of Veterinary Information Network. The clinical images are provided by diplomates of AVDC.


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Tooth Fracture Classification

The Tooth Fracture (T/FX) classification shown below can be applied for brachyodont and hypsodont teeth, which covers domesticated species and many wild species.

Fractures of teeth in some wild species may not fit into this classification because of differences in the tissues present in the teeth.
When used in AVDC case log entries, the tooth fracture abbreviations noted below are to be stated as T/FX/{specific abbreviation} e.g T/FX/CCF

Enamel infraction (T/FX/EI): Incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance

Enamel fracture (T/FX/EF): Fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel

Uncomplicated crown fracture (T/FX/UCF): Fracture of the crown that does not expose the pulp

Complicated crown fracture (T/FX/CCF): Fracture of the crown that exposes the pulp

Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (T/FX/UCRF): Fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp

Complicated crown-root fracture (T/FX/CCRF): Fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp

Root fracture (T/FX/RF): Fracture involving the root

Retained root or reserve crown (RTR): Presence of a root remnant or reserve crown remnant

Retained crown-root or clinical crown-reserve crown or clinical crown-reserve crown and root (RCR): Presence of a crown-root remnant (in brachyodont teeth), clinical crown-reserve crown remnant (in aradicular hypsodont teeth) or clinical crown-reserve crown and root remnant (in radicular hypsodont teeth)



To download a .pdf printable version of this composite diagram, click download

Enamel infraction (EI): An incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance. Example:



Enamel fracture (EF): A fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel. Example:



Uncomplicated crown fracture (UCF): A fracture of the crown1 that does not expose the pulp. Example:



Complicated crown fracture (CCF): A fracture of the crown1 that exposes the pulp. Example:



Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (UCRF): A fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp. Example:



Complicated crown-root fracture (CCRF): A fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp. Example:



Root fracture (RF): A fracture involving the root. Example:

Copyright of these images is owned by AVDC. Download of the images and use in printed materials or presentations is permitted without charge provided that the source is cited as Copyright AVDC, used with permission.

The AVDC Board gratefully acknowledges Veterinary Information Network (VIN) for developing and donating the tooth fracture and tooth resorption diagrams. The clinical images are provided by diplomates of AVDC.

To save a high-resolution version of an individual image for use in a presentation or a printed article, right-click on the image, click Save Picture As and follow the on-screen directions.



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Endodontic Terminology

Endodontics is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the pulp-dentin complex and their impact on associated tissues.

Apexogenesis: Physiological formation of the apex of a vital tooth

Pulp (PU): Soft tissue in the pulp cavity

Odontoblasts: Cells of mesenchymal origin that line the outer surface of the pulp and whose biological function is formation of dentin (dentinogenesis)

Predentin: Unmineralized dentin matrix produced by odontoblasts

Dentin: Mineralized tissue surrounding the pulp and containing dentinal tubules which radiate outward from the pulp to the periphery

Primary dentin: Dentin produced until root formation is completed (e.g., dogs, cats) or the tooth comes into occlusion (e.g., horses)

Secondary dentin: Dentin produced after root formation is completed

Tertiary dentin: Dentin produced as a result of a local insult; can be reactionary (produced by existing odontoblasts) or reparative (produced by odontoblast-like cells that differentiated from pulpal stem cells as a result of an insult)

Sclerotic dentin: Transparent dentin characterized by mineralization of the dentinal tubules as a result of an insult or normal aging

Periapical (PA): Pertaining to tissues around the apex of a tooth, including the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone

Fracture (FX): Breaking of a bone or tooth

Vital tooth (T/V): Tooth with vital pulp

Nonvital tooth (T/NV): Tooth with nonvital pulp or from which the pulp has been removed

Pulp stones (PU/S): Intrapulpal mineralized structures

Mineralization of the pulp (PU/M): Pulpal mineralization resulting in regional narrowing or complete disappearance of the pulp cavity

Hypercementosis (HC): Excessive deposition of cementum around the root or reserve crown of a tooth

Near pulp exposure (T/NE): Thin layer of dentin separating the pulp from the outer tooth surface

Pulp exposure (T/PE): Tooth with an opening through the wall of the pulp cavity uncovering the pulp

Tooth luxation (T/LUX): Clinically or radiographically evident displacement of the tooth within its alveolus

Tooth avulsion (T/A): Complete extrusive luxation with the tooth out of its alveolus

Periapical pathology (PA/P): Pertaining to disease around the apex of a tooth

Periapical cyst (PA/C): Odontogenic cyst formed around the apex of a tooth after stimulation and proliferation of epithelial rests in the periodontal ligament (also known as a radicular cyst)

Periapical granuloma (PA/G): Chronic apical periodontitis with accumulation of mononuclear inflammatory cells and an encircling aggregation of fibroblasts and collagen that on diagnostic imaging appears as diffuse or circumscribed radiolucent lesion

Periapical abscess (PA/A): Acute or chronic inflammation of the periapical tissues characterized by localized accumulation of suppuration

Osteosclerosis (OSS): Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of a vital tooth caused by low-grade pulp irritation (asymptomatic; not requiring endodontic therapy)

Condensing osteitis (COO): Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of a non-vital tooth caused by long-standing and low-toxic exudation from an infected pulp (requiring endodontic therapy)

Alveolar osteitis (AOS): Inflammation of the alveolar bone considered to be a complication after tooth extraction

Osteomyelitis (OST): Localized or wide-spread infection of the bone and bone marrow

Osteonecrosis (OSN): Localized or wide-spread necrosis of the bone and bone marrow

Phoenix abscess: Acute exacerbation of chronic apical periodontitis

Intraoral fistula (IOF): Pathological communication between tooth, bone or soft tissue and the oral cavity; use IOF/R for its repair

Orofacial fistula (OFF): Pathological communication between the oral cavity and face; use OFD/R for its repair

Indirect pulp capping (PCI): Procedure involving the placement of a medicated material over an area of near pulp exposure

Direct pulp capping (PCD): Procedure performed as part of vital pulp therapy and involving the placement of a medicated material over an area of pulp exposure

Vital pulp therapy (VPT): Procedure performed on a vital tooth with pulp exposure, involving partial pulpectomy, direct pulp capping and access/fracture site restoration

Apexification (APN): Procedure to promote apical closure of a nonvital tooth

Standard (orthograde) root canal therapy (RCT): Procedure that involves accessing, debriding (including total pulpectomy), shaping, disinfecting, and obturating the root canal and restoring the access and/or fracture sites

Surgical (retrograde) root canal therapy (RCT/S): Procedure that involves accessing the bone surface (through mucosa or skin), fenestration of the bone over the root apex, apicoectomy, and retrograde filling

Apicoectomy (AP/X): Removal of the apex of a tooth; also called root end resection

Retrograde filling: Restoration placed in the apical portion of the root canal after apicoectomy

Tooth repositioning (T/RP): Repositioning of a displaced tooth

Interdental splinting (IDS): Fixation using intraoral splints between teeth within a dental arch (for example for avulsed or luxated teeth that underwent reimplantation or repositioning); if performed for jaw fracture repair, use FX/R/IDS


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Operative Dentistry and Prosthodontic Terminology

Operative (or restorative) dentistry is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the art and science of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of defects of teeth that do not require prosthodontic crowns for correction.

Prosthodontics (or dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry) is a speciality in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the provision of suitable substitutes for the clinical crown of teeth or for one or more missing or lost teeth and their associated parts. Maxillofacial prosthetics is considered a subspecialty of prosthodontics, involving palatal obturators and maxillofacial prostheses to replace resected or lost tissues.

Odontoplasty (ODY): Surgical contouring of the tooth surface

Defect preparation (DP): Removal of dental hard tissue to establish in a tooth the biomechanically acceptable form necessary to receive and retain a defect restoration

Restoration (R): Anything that replaces lost tooth structure, teeth or oral tissues, including fillings, inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns, bridges, implants, dentures and obturators

Defect restoration: Filling made of amalgam (R/A), glass ionomer (R/I), composite (R/C) or compomer (R/CP) within a prepared defect

Bridge (BRI): Fixed partial denture used to replace a missing or lost tooth by joining permanently to adjacent teeth or implants

Crown preparation (CR/P): Removal of enamel or enamel and dentin to establish on a tooth the biomechanically acceptable form necessary to receive and retain a prosthodontic crown

Temporary crown (CR/T): Provisional, short-term cap made of resin to protect a prepared crown until cementation of a prosthodontic crown

Full crown: Prosthodontic crown made of metal (CR/M), resin (CR/R), ceramic (CR/C) or porcelain fused to metal (CR/PFM) that covers the tip and all sides of a prepared crown

Partial crown: Prosthodontic crown (e.g., three-quarter crown) made of metal (CR/M/P), resin (CR/R/P), ceramic (CR/C/P) or porcelain fused to metal (CR/PFM/P) that covers part of a prepared crown

Implant (IMP): Titanium rod-shaped endosseous device to support intraoral prosthetics that resemble a tooth or group of teeth to replace one or more missing or lost teeth

Crown reduction (CR/XP): Partial removal of tooth substance to reduce the height or an abnormal extension of the clinical crown

Crown amputation (CR/A): Total removal of clinical crown substance

Post and core (PCB): Placing a post into the root canal of a tooth that had root canal therapy and build-up of a core made of filling material around the portion of post that extends out from the pulp cavity

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