AVDC Nomenclature Committee

Recommendations Adopted by the AVDC Board. Most recently updated May 2012

AVDC has adopted the following items as standard nomenclature for use in College documents. Trainees submitting case reports for AVDC credentials review are required to use these terms.

Determining and adopting nomenclature is an on-going process. Additional items will be added to this list as they are approved by the Board.

The Board appreciates the efforts of the Nomenclature Committee in finding acceptable terms in an area that has been unclear and, at times, controversial.

About the images included on this page:


Copyright of the images is owned by AVDC. Download of the images and use in printed materials or presentations is permitted without charge provided that the source is cited as Copyright AVDC, used with permission. The Board gratefully acknowledges Veterinary Information Network (VIN) for developing and donating the tooth fracture and tooth resorption diagrams. The clinical images are provided by diplomates of AVDC.

To save a high-resolution version of an individual image for use in a presentation or a printed article, right-click on the image, click Save Picture As and follow the on-screen directions.


Topics Available in this Document


Oral and Dental Anatomy

Nomenclature of Specific Teeth

Surfaces of Teeth and Directions in the Mouth

Generations of Teeth in Diphyodont Species

Jaws, Salivary Glands and Lymph Nodes

 

Definition of Stage, Grade and Index


Periodontology

Periodontal Disease

Periodontal Disease Classification

Furcation

Mobility

(See also Oropharyngeal Inflammation section)

Periodontal Treatment


Abnormalities of Teeth

Dental Fracture Classification

Enamel Formation Abnormalities

Tooth Resorption

Classification by Stage

Classification by Type

Classification of Dental Occlusion in Dogs

 

Oral Pathology

Oropharyngeal Inflammation

Oral Masses

Other Oral Pathology

 

Other Structures

Salivary Glands and Regional Lymph Nodes

Palate and Related Terminology for use in AVDC Case Logs

 

Oral Surgery

Grafts and Related Terminology for use in AVDC Case Logs

 

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Nomenclature of Specific Teeth The incisors will be referred to as: (right or left) (maxillary or mandibular) first, second, or third incisors numbered from the midline.

Reference(s): Peyer B. Comparative odontology. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968;1-347. Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, et al. Teeth, general and comparative. In: The viscera of domestic mammals. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1973;75-99.

In the cat, the tooth immediately distal to the maxillary canine is the second premolar, the tooth immediately distal to the mandibular canine is the third premolar.

Reference(s): Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, et al. Teeth, general and comparative. In: The viscera of domestic mammals. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1973;75-99.

The existence of the conventional anatomical names of teeth as well as the various tooth numbering systems is recognized. The correct anatomical names of teeth are (right or left), (maxillary or mandibular), (first, second, third or fourth), (incisor, canine, premolar, molar), as applicable, written out in full or abbreviated. The modified Triadan system is presently considered to be the tooth numbering system of choice in veterinary dentistry; gaps are left in the numbering sequence where there are missing teeth (for example, the first premolar encountered in the feline left maxilla is numbered 206, not 205. The two lower right premolars are 407 and 408, not 405 and 406).
Both the use of anatomical names and the modified Triadan system are acceptable for recording and storing veterinary dental information. The use of anatomical names in publications is required by many leading journals and is recommended. It offers the advantage of veterinary dental publications being understandable to other health professionals and scientists with an interest in veterinary dentistry.

Reference(s): Floyd MR. The modified Triadan system: nomenclature for veterinary dentistry. J Vet Dent 1991; 8:18-19.

Comment(s): In January 1972, the International Dental Federation adopted a new, two digit, user friendly nomenclature system for use in the human dental patient. This new system eliminated the plus and minus signs of the Haderup System and the brackets of the Winkel System. Following the acceptance of the new system for human dental nomenclature, Professor DrMedDent H. Triadan, a dentist at the University of Bern, Switzerland, introduced a similar system for animals. Due to the fact that many animals, including his canine model, have more than nine teeth in a quadrant, the Triadan system for animals utilizes three digits instead of two digits.

 

Surfaces of Teeth and Directions in the Mouth

Vestibular/Buccal/Labial

Vestibular is the correct term referring to the surface of the tooth facing the vestibule or lips; buccal and labial are acceptable alternatives.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994.

Comment(s): The term "facial" specifically refers to the surfaces of the rostral teeth visible from the front. According to Dr. A.J. Bezuidenhout, a veterinary anatomist at Cornell University, "facial" is a bit of a misnomer. Traditionally "facial" has been used in human dentistry for the aspect of teeth visible from the front, i.e. incisors and canines.

Lingual/Palatal

Lingual: The surface of a mandibular or maxillary tooth facing the tongue is the lingual surface. Palatal can also be used when referring to the lingual surface of maxillary teeth.

Mesial/Distal

Mesial and distal are terms applicable to tooth surfaces. The mesial surface of the first incisor is next to the median plane; on other teeth it is directed toward the first incisor. The distal surface is opposite from the mesial surface.

Rostral/Caudal

Rostral and caudal are the positional and directional anatomical terms applicable to the head in a sagittal plane in non-human vertebrates.

Rostral refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the most forward structure of the head. Caudal refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the tail.

Anterior and posterior are the synonymous terms used in human dentistry.


 

Generations of Teeth in Diphyodont Species

Deciduous and permanent are the anatomically correct terms to denote the two generations of teeth in diphyodont species. It is acceptable to use "primary" instead of deciduous in communicating with clients.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Boucher CO, Zwemer TJ. Boucher's clinical dental terminology - a glossary of accepted terms in all disciplines of dentistry. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1993. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Comments: Deciduous is the scientific term used in biology, as well as in comparative anatomy and anthropology for both animal and plant structures which are regularly shed. As a substitute for temporary, the term primary appeared early in the literature and it is listed in both Anthony's and Otofy's dictionaries 1922-23. The style of the Journal of the ADA requires the term deciduous in all literature designed for the profession and allows primary only in discourse for non-professional persons.

The deciduous dentition period is that period during which only deciduous teeth are present. The mixed dentition period is that period during which both deciduous and permanent teeth are present. The permanent dentition period is that period during which only permanent teeth are present.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Boucher CO, Zwemer TJ. Boucher's clinical dental terminology - a glossary of accepted terms in all disciplines of dentistry. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1993. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

The term "persistent deciduous tooth" is etymologically correct, although the term "retained deciduous tooth" is commonly used. The latter term, however, can be confused with an unerupted deciduous tooth.

Reference(s): Eisenmenger E, Zetner K. Tierv§rztliche Zahnheilkunde. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1982;44-50.

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Jaws, Salivary Glands and Lymph Nodes

Jaws

All mammals have two maxillas (or maxillae) and two mandibles. The adjective "maxillary" is often used in a wider sense, e.g., "maxillary fractures", to include other facial bones, in addition to the maxillary bone proper.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. The skull. In: Evans HE, ed. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993;128-166. Hildebrand M. Analysis of vertebrate structure. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995. Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, et al. Teeth, general and comparative. In: The viscera of domestic mammals. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1973;75-99. Verstraete FJM. Maxillofacial fractures. In: Slatter DH, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2003;2190-2207.

Comprehensive List of Clinically Relevant Terms Related to the Mandible and Temporomandibular Joint:

NAV term
Anglicized version
Comments
Mandibula Mandible All animals have two mandibles, not one -- removing one entire mandible therefore is a mandibulectomy not a hemimandibulectomy
Corpus mandibulae Body of the mandible The part that carries the teeth - often incorrectly referred to as horizontal ramus
Pars incisiva Incisive part The part that carries the incisors
Pars molaris Molar part The part that carries the premolars and molars premolar-molar part would probably have been more accurate
Margo alveolaris Alveolar margin Often incorrectly referred to as alveolar crest
Margo ventralis Ventral margin  
Canalis mandibulae Mandibular canal Contains only the neurovascular bundle often incorrectly referred to as the medullary cavity of the mandible
Foramina mentalia Mental foramens or foramina Rostral, middle or caudal mental foramina in the dog and cat
Ramus mandibulae Ramus of the mandible The part that carries the 3 processes often incorrectly referred to as the vertical ramus
Processus angularis / angulus mandibulae Angular process / angle of the mandible  
Processus coronoideus Coronoid process  
Processus condylaris Condylar process Often incorrectly referred to as condyloid process
Caput mandibulae Mandibular notch The notch on the caudal aspect, between the coronoid and condylar processes - not to be confused with the facial vascular notch
Incisura vasorum facialium Facial vascular notch Shallow indentation on the ventral apsect of the mandible, rostral to the angular process - poorly defined in carnivores
Foramen mandibulae Mandibular foramen The entrance to the mandibular canal
Articulatio intermandibularis Intermandibular joint  
Discus articularis Articular disk Often incorrectly referred to as meniscus
Articulatio intermandibularis Intermandibular joint  
Synchondrosis intermandibularis Mandibular symphysis Scapino RP. The third joint of the canine jaw.
Journal of Morphology 1965;116:23-50.
Collum mandibulae Neck of the mandible The narrow part of the condylar process supporting the head

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Scapino RP. The third joint of the canine jaw. J Morphol 1965;116:23-50.


Incisive Bones:

In domestic animals, the correct name for the paired bones that carry the maxillary incisors, located rostral to the maxillary bones, is the incisive bones, not the premaxilla.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994.

Mandibular Salivary Gland and Lymph Node:

Domestic animals have a mandibular gland (or mandibular salivary gland) and a mandibular lymph node. The term "submandibular," as used in humans, is incorrect due the difference in topography of these structures.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Fauces:

The fauces are defined as the lateral walls of the oropharynx that are located medial to the palatoglossal folds. The areas lateral to the palatoglossal fold, commonly involved in feline stomatitis, are not the fauces.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Hard Palate:

The midline of the hard palate is not a symphysis but is formed by the interincisive suture, the median palatine suture of the palatine processes of the maxillary bones, and the median suture of the palatine bones.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Juga surrounding teeth:

The alveolar jugum (plural alveolar juga) is the palpable convexity of the buccal alveolar bone overlying a large tooth root.

Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

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Definitions of Stage, Grade and Index

Stage: The assessment of the extent of pathological lesions in the course of a disease that is likely to be progressive. E.g., stages of periodontal disease, staging of oral tumors, etc.

Grade: The quantitative assessment of the degree of severity of a disease or abnormal condition at the time of diagnosis, irrespective of whether the disease is progressive e.g., a grade 2 mast cell tumor (based on mitotic figures)

Index: A quantitative expression of predefined diagnostic criteria whereby the presence and/or severity of pathological conditions are recorded by assessing a numerical value e.g., gingival index, plaque index, etc.

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Periodontal Disease

Periodontal Disease Classification

The degree of severity of periodontal disease relates to a single tooth; a patient may have teeth that have different stages of periodontal disease.

Normal (PD 0): Clinically normal - no gingival inflammation or periodontitis clinically evident.

Stage 1 (PD 1): Gingivitis only without attachment loss. The height and architecture of the alveolar margin are normal.

Stage 2 (PD 2): Early periodontitis - less than 25% of attachment loss or at most, there is a stage 1 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth. There are early radiologic signs of periodontitis. The loss of periodontal attachment is less than 25% as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cemento-enamel junction relative to the length of the root.

Stage 3 (PD 3): Moderate periodontitis - 25-50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cemento-enamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 2 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.

Stage 4 (PD 4): Advanced periodontitis - more than 50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cemento-enamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 3 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.

Reference: Wolf HF, Rateitschak EM, Rateitschak KH et al. Color atlas of dental medicine: periodontology, 3rd ed. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 2005.


Furcation Involvement/Exposure

Stage 1 (F1, furcation involvement) exists when a periodontal probe extends less than half way under the crown in any direction of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss.

Stage 2 (F2, furcation involvement) exists when a periodontal probe extends greater than half way under the crown of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss but not through and through.

Stage 3 (F3, furcation exposure) exists when a periodontal probe extends under the crown of a multirooted tooth, through and through from one side of the furcation out the other.


Tooth Mobility

Stage 0 (M0) Physiologic mobility up to 0.2 mm.

Stage 1 (M1) The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.2 mm and up to 0.5 mm.

Stage 2 (M2) The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.5 mm and up to 1.0 mm.

Stage 3 (M3) The mobility is increased in any direction than axial over a distance exceeding 1.0 mm or any axial movement.


Periodontal Treatment

Professional oral care includes mechanical procedures performed in the oral cavity:

  • Professional dental cleaning refers to scaling (supragingival and subgingival plaque and calculus removal) and polishing of the teeth with power/hand instrumentation performed by a trained veterinary health care provider under general anesthesia. See also AVDC Position Statements on Dental Health Care Providers (http://avdc.org/Dental_Health_Care_Providers.pdf) and on Non-Professional Dental Scaling (http://avdc.org/Dental_Scaling_Without_Anesthesia.pdf).
  •  

  • Periodontal therapy refers to treatment of diseased periodontal tissues that includes professional dental cleaning as defined above and one or more of the following: root planing, gingival curettage, periodontal flaps, regenerative surgery, gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, and local administration of antiseptics/antibiotics.

     

  • Home oral hygiene refers to measures taken by pet owners that are aimed at controlling or preventing plaque and calculus accumulation.

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Dental Fracture Classification


To download a .pdf printable version of this composite diagram, click download

Enamel infraction (EI): An incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance. Example:




Enamel fracture (EF): A fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel. Example:



Uncomplicated crown fracture (UCF): A fracture of the crown1 that does not expose the pulp. Example:




Complicated crown fracture (CCF): A fracture of the crown1 that exposes the pulp. Example:




Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (UCRF): A fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp. Example:




Complicated crown-root fracture (CCRF): A fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp. Example:



Root fracture (RF): A fracture involving the root. Example:

Copyright of these images is owned by AVDC. Download of the images and use in printed materials or presentations is permitted without charge provided that the source is cited as Copyright AVDC, used with permission. The Board gratefully acknowledges Veterinary Information Network (VIN) for developing and donating the tooth fracture and tooth resorption diagrams. The clinical images are provided by diplomates of AVDC.

To save a high-resolution version of an individual image for use in a presentation or a printed article, right-click on the image, click Save Picture As and follow the on-screen directions.

When used in AVDC case log entries, the tooth fracture abbreviations noted above are to be stated as T/FX/{specific abbreviation} e.g T/FX/CCF

This tooth fracture classification can be applied for brachydont and hypsodont teeth, which covers domesticated species and many wild species. Fractures of teeth in some wild species may not fit into this classification because of differences in the tissues present in the teeth.

For brachydont teeth, the following definitions of crown, crown-root and root apply:

Crown: Enamel and dentin
Crown-root: Enamel, dentin and cementum
Root: Dentin and cementum

For most hypsodont teeth, the following definitions of crown, crown-root and root apply:

Crown: Clinical crown
Crown-root: Clinical crown and reserve crown
Root: Reserve crown and/or root

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Abnormalities of Enamel Formation

Amelogenesis imperfecta includes genetic and/or developmental enamel formation and maturation abnormalities such as enamel hypoplasia and enamel hypomineralization:

Enamel hypoplasia refers to inadequate deposition of enamel matrix. This can affect one or several teeth and may be focal or multifocal. The crowns of affected teeth can have areas of normal enamel next to areas of hypoplastic or missing enamel.

Enamel hypomineralization refers to inadequate mineralization of enamel matrix. This often affects several or all teeth. The crowns of affected teeth are covered by soft enamel that may be worn rapidly.



Enamel hypoplasia                               Enamel hypomineralization

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Classification of Tooth Resorption

Tooth resorption is classified based on the severity of the resorption (Stages 1-5) and on the location of the resorption (Types 1-3)

Stages of Tooth Resorption

Stage 1 (TR 1):  Mild dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel). TR1  
Stage 2 (TR 2): Moderate dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that does not extend to the pulp cavity). TR2 TR2TR2 radiograph
Stage 3 (TR 3): Deep dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth retains its integrity. TR3

TR3 clinical
TR3 radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.



TR4a Crown and root are equally affected;

TR4a TR4a radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4b Crown is more severely affected than the root;

TR4b

TR4b clinical
TR4b radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4c Root is more severely affected than the crown.

TR4c TR4c clinical
TR4c radiograph
Stage 5 (TR 5): Remnants of dental hard tissue are visible only as irregular radiopacities, and gingival covering is complete. TR5 TR5 clinical
TR5 radiograph

The AVDC classification of tooth resorption is based on the assumption that tooth resorption is a progressive condition.

To save a high-resolution version of an individual image, right-click on the image, click Save Picture As and follow the on-screen directions.

For low resolution printer-friendly versions of the full sets of tooth resorption images, click TR Diagrams or TR Clinical Images.

Types of Resorption, Based on Radiographic Appearance

On a radiograph of a tooth with type 1 (T1) appearance, a focal or multifocal radiolucency is present in the tooth with otherwise normal radiopacity and normal periodontal ligament space.

On a radiograph of a tooth with type 2 (T2) appearance, there is narrowing or disappearance of the periodontal ligament space in at least some areas and decreased radiopacity of part of the tooth.

On a radiograph of a tooth with type 3 (T3) appearance, features of both type 1 and type 2 are present in the same tooth. A tooth with this appearance has areas of normal and narrow or lost periodontal ligament space, and there is focal or multifocal radiolucency in the tooth and decreased radiopacity in other areas of the tooth.

Abbreviations: A tooth with a Stage 4b lesion that has a type 2 radiographic appearance would be abbreviated TR-S4b-T2





Radiographic Examples of Types of Tooth Resorption:

Copyright of these images is owned by AVDC. Download of these images and use in printed materials or presentations is permitted without charge provided that the source is cited as Copyright AVDC, used with permission. The diagrams are provided courtesy of Veterinary Information Network. The clinical images are provided by diplomates of AVDC.

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Classification of Dental Occlusion in Dogs

An ideal occlusion can be described as perfect interdigitation of the upper and lower teeth. In the dog, the ideal tooth positions in the arches are defined by the occlusal, inter-arch and interdental relationships of the teeth of the archetypal dog (i.e. wolf). This ideal relationship with the mouth closed can be defined by the following:

The maxillary incisor teeth are all positioned rostral to the corresponding mandibular incisor teeth. The crown cusps of the mandibular incisor teeth contact the cingulum of the maxillary incisor teeth. The mandibular canine tooth is inclined labially and bisects the interproximal (interdental) space between the opposing maxillary third incisor tooth and canine tooth. The maxillary premolar teeth do not contact the mandibular premolar teeth. The crown cusps of the mandibular premolar teeth are positioned lingual to the arch of the maxillary premolar teeth. The crown cusps of the mandibular premolar teeth bisect the interproximal (interdental) spaces rostral to the corresponding maxillary premolar teeth. The mesial crown cusp of the maxillary fourth premolar tooth is positioned lateral to the space between the mandibular fourth premolar tooth and the mandibular first molar tooth.

Normal occlusion in a dog:




A malocclusion is any deviation from normal occlusion described above. Malocclusion may be due to abnormal positioning of a tooth or teeth (dental malocclusion) or due to asymmetry or other deviation of bones which support the dentition (skeletal malocclusion).

Terms of malocclusion:

Neutroclusion (Class 1 malocclusion; MAL/1): A normal rostral-caudal relationship of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches with malposition of one or more individual teeth.

Mandibular distoclusion (Class 2 malocclusion; MAL/2): An abnormal rostral-caudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes caudal to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch. Example:



Mandibular mesioclusion (Class 3 malocclusion; MAL/3): An abnormal rostral-caudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes rostral to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch. Example:



Dental malocclusions

Distoversion (DV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a distal direction.

Mesioversion (MV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a mesial direction.

Linguoversion (LV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a lingual direction.

Labioversion (LABV) describes an incisor or canine tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a labial direction.

Buccoversion (BV) describes a premolar or molar tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a buccal direction.

Crossbite (XB) describes a malocclusion in which a mandibular tooth or teeth have a more buccal or labial position than the antagonist maxillary tooth. It can be classified as rostral or caudal.

In rostral crossbite (RXB, similar to anterior crossbite in human terminology) one or more of the mandibular incisor teeth is labial to the opposing maxillary incisor teeth when the mouth is closed.

In caudal crossbite (CXB, similar to posterior crossbite in human terminology) one or more of the mandibular cheek teeth is buccal to the opposing maxillary cheek teeth when the mouth is closed.

Skeletal malocclusions:

Symmetrical skeletal malocclusion is defined in Terms of Malocclusion (Classes 1-3) at the top of this section.

Asymmetrical Skeletal Malocclusion:

Maxillary-mandibular asymmetry describes skeletal malocclusions that can occur in a rostro-caudal, side-to side, or dorso-ventral direction.

Maxillary-mandibular asymmetry in a rostro-caudal direction occurs when mandibular mesioclusion or distoclusion is present on one side of the face while the contralateral side retains normal dental alignment.

Maxillary-mandibular asymmetry in a side-to-side direction occurs when there is loss of the midline alignment of the maxilla and mandible.

Maxillary-mandibular asymmetry in a dorso-ventral direction results in an open bite (OB), which is defined as an abnormal vertical space between opposing dental arches when the mouth is closed.

The expression "wry bite" is a layman term that has been used to describe a wide variety of unilateral occlusal abnormalities. Because "wry bite" is non-specific, its use is not recommended.

AVDC Abbreviations for malocclusions in dogs:

The diagnosis for a patient with malocclusion can be abbreviated as: MAL ( malocclusion)/1 or 2 or 3 (= malocclusion class designation)/specific malocclusion abbreviation and tooth or teeth number(s).

Example: MAL/1/RXB202 for a dog with class 1 occlusion and a rostral crossbite of the second incisor.

If multiple teeth have the same malocclusion, include the tooth numbers with a comma in between e.g. MAL/1/RXB202,302.

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Oral and Oropharyngeal Inflammation

Oral and oropharyngeal inflammation is classified by location as:

Gingivitis: inflammation of gingiva

Gingival enlargement is a clinical term, referring to overgrowth or thickening of gingiva in the absence of a histological diagnosis.
Gingival hyperplasia is a histological term, referring to an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a normal arrangement and resulting clinically in gingival enlargement.
Gingivectomy refers to removal of some or all gingiva surrounding a tooth.
Gingivoplasty is a form of gingivectomy performed to restore physiological contours of the gingiva.



Periodontitis: inflammation of non-gingival periodontal tissues (i.e., the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone)

Alveolar mucositis: inflammation of alveolar mucosa (i.e., mucosa overlying the alveolar process and extending from the mucogingival junction without obvious demarcation to the vestibular sulcus and to the floor of the mouth)

Sublingual mucositis: inflammation of mucosa on the floor of the mouth

Labial/buccal mucositis: inflammation of lip/cheek mucosa

Caudal mucositis: inflammation of mucosa of the caudal oral cavity, bordered medially by the palatoglossal folds and fauces, dorsally by the hard and soft palate, and rostrally by alveolar and buccal mucosa

Contact mucositis and contact mucosal ulceration: lesions in susceptible individuals that are secondary to mucosal contact with a tooth surface bearing the responsible irritant, allergen, or antigen. They have also been called “contact ulcers” and “kissing ulcers”.

Palatitis: inflammation of mucosa covering the hard and/or soft palate

Glossitis: inflammation of mucosa of the dorsal and/or ventral tongue surface

Cheilitis: inflammation of the lip (including the mucocutaneous junction area and skin of the lip)

Osteomyelitis: inflammation of the bone and bone marrow

Stomatitis: inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth; in clinical use the term should be reserved to describe wide-spread oral inflammation (beyond gingivitis and periodontitis) that may also extend into submucosal tissues (e.g., marked caudal mucositis extending into submucosal tissues may be termed caudal stomatitis)

Tonsillitis: inflammation of the palatine tonsil

Pharyngitis: inflammation of the pharynx

Examples of the Appearance of Various Regional Oral Inflammatory Diseases.

A definitive diagnosis of inflammation often cannot be made based on physical examination findings alone.





















 

 

Oral Masses

The term “epulis” (plural = “epulides”) is a general term referring to a gingival mass lesion of any type. Examples of epulides include: focal fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral odotogenic fibroma, acanthomatous ameloblastoma, non-odontogenic tumors, pyogenic granulomas and reactive exostosis.

The AVDC Nomenclature Committee is working with human oral pathologists, veterinary pathologists and veterinary oncologists to develop a set of names for specific tumor types that will be acceptable for standard use in veterinary dental patients.

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Other Oral Pathology

Eosinophilic granuloma – Referring to conditions affecting the lip/labial mucosa (EGL), hard/soft palate (EGP), tongue/sublingual mucosa (EGT), and skin that are characterized histopathologically by the presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate
Erythema multiforme (EM) – Typically drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction characterized by erythematous, vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral and skin lesions
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) – Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by intraepithelial blister formation (after breakdown or loss of intercellular adhesion), biochemically by evidence of circulating autoantibodies against components of the epithelial desmosome-tonofilament complexes, and clinically by the presence of vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral and mucocutaneous lesions
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) – Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by subepithelial clefting (separation at the epithelium-connective tissue interface), biochemically by evidence of circulating autoantibodies against components of the basement membrane, and clinically by the presence of erythematous, erosive, vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral lesions
Lupus erythematosus (LE) – Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by basal cell destruction, hyperkeratosis, epithelial atrophy, subepithelial and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and vascular dilation with submucosal edema, biochemically by the evidence of circulating autoantibodies against various cellular antigens in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and clinically by the presence of acute lesions (systemic LE) to skin, mucosa and multiple organs or chronic lesions (discoid LE) mostly confined to the skin of the face and mucosa of the oral cavity
Calcinosis circumscripta (CC) – Circumscribed areas of mineralization characterized by deposition of calcium salts (e.g., in the tip of the tongue)

 

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Salivary Glands and Lymph Node Definitions

(See also anatomic definitions in Anatomy section)

Sialography (SIAG) – Radiographic technique where a radiopaque contrast agent is infused into the ductal system of a salivary gland before imaging is performed
Sublingual sialocele (SIAS) – Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the sublingual region; also called ranula
Pharyngeal sialocele (SIAP) – Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the pharyngeal region
Cervical sialocele (SIAC) – Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the intermandibular or cervical region
Mucus retention cyst (MRC) – Intraductal mucus accumulation with duct dilation resulting from obstruction of salivary flow (e.g., due to a sialolith)
Sialadenitis (SIAD) – Inflammation of a salivary gland
Sialolith (SIAL) – A calcareous concretion or calculus (stone) in the salivary duct or gland
Sialadenosis (SIDO) – Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic enlargement of a salivary gland; also called sialosis
Necrotizing sialometaplasia (SIAM) – Squamous metaplasia of the salivary gland ducts and lobules with ischemic necrosis of the salivary gland lobules; also called salivary gland infarction
Salivary gland neoplasia (SGN) – Benign or malignant neoplastic lesion arising from salivary glandular or ductal tissue
Salivary gland resection (SGR) – Surgical removal of a salivary gland
Lymph node enlargement (LNE) – Palpable or visual enlargement of a lymph node
Regional metastasis (RMET) – Neoplastic spread to regional lymph node(s) confirmed by biopsy
Distant metastasis (DMET) – Neoplastic spread to distant sites confirmed by biopsy or diagnostic imaging
Lymph node resection (LNR) – Surgical removal of a lymph node

Other terminology:
Salivary gland – Exocrine gland secreting saliva
Sialocele (or salivary mucocele) – Clinical term indicating a swelling that contains saliva and including mucus extravasation phenomenon and mucus retention cyst
Mucus extravasation phenomenon – Accumulation of saliva that leaked from a salivary duct into subcutaneous or submucosal tissue and consequent tissue reaction to saliva
Sialolithiasis – Condition characterized by the presence of one or more sialoliths
Lymph node – Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes and has a capsule; filtering lymph fluid, as afferent lymph vessels enter the node and efferent lymph vessels leave the node
Tonsil – Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes but lacks a capsule; not filtering lymph fluid, as there are no afferent lymph vessels

 

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Palate and upper-airway-related terminology for use in AVDC Case Logs

Palate defect (PDE) – Abnormal communication between the oral/oropharyngeal and nasal/nasopharyngeal passages that is congenital or acquired and located in the hard and/or soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with PDER
Palatal obturator (POB) – Prosthetic device for temporary or permanent closure of palate defects
Cleft lip (CL) – Congenital longitudinal defect of the upper lip (regardless of location); surgical repair is abbreviated with CLR
Cleft palate (CP) – Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with CPR
Cleft soft palate (CSP) – Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the soft palate only; surgical repair is abbreviated with CSPR
Unilateral soft palate defect (CSPU) – Congenital longitudinal defect of the soft palate on one side only; surgical repair is abbreviated with CSPUR
Soft palate hypoplasia (SPH) – Congenital decrease in length of the soft palate; surgical lengthening of the soft palate is abbreviated with SPHL
Traumatic cleft palate (CPT) – Acquired longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and/or soft palate resulting from trauma; surgical repair is abbreviated with CPTR
Oronasal fistula (ONF) – Acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities along the upper dental arch; surgical repair is abbreviated with ONFR
Oroantral fistula (OAF) – Acquired communication between the oral cavity and maxillary sinus in pigs, ruminants and equids; surgical repair is abbreviated with OAFR
Elongated soft palate (ESP) – Congenital increase in length of the soft palate; surgical reduction of the soft palate is abbreviated with ESPR
Naris stenosis (NAS) – Pinched or narrow nostril
Naroplasty (NAP) – Surgical correction of a stenotic naris
Nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS) – Constriction or narrowing of the nasopharyngeal passage
Tonsillitis (TON) – Enlarged and inflamed palatine tonsil
Tonsillectomy (TECT) – Surgical resection of the palatine tonsil

Other palate and related terminology:

Congenital – Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that is present at birth
Acquired – Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that is not congenital but develops after birth
Harelip – Congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip
Hard palate – Palate supported by bone
Soft palate – Caudal part of palate not supported by bone
Palatine tonsil – Tonsil related to the lateral attachment of the soft palate
Tonsillar fossa – Depression containing the palatine tonsil
Semilunar fold – Mucosal fold from the ventrolateral aspect of the soft palate, forming the medial wall of the tonsillar fossa
Palatine rugae – Transverse ridges of mucosa on the hard palate
Incisive papilla – Elevation of mucosa at the rostral end of the median line of junction of the halves of the palate, concealing the orifices of the incisive ducts

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Oral Surgery

 

Grafts and Related Terminology for use in AVDC Case Logs

 

A graft is non-living material or living tissue used for implantation or transplantation to replace a diseased part or compensate for a defect.

Gingival graft (GG)

 

Gingiva or gingiva-like tissue (e.g., from the hard palate) used to take place of a gingival defect.

Connective tissue graft (CTG)

Connective tissue from a keratinized mucosa (e.g., from the hard palate) used to take place of a gingival defect and partially or completely covered with gingiva and/or alveolar mucosa at the recipient bed.

Mucosal graft (MG)

Mucosa used to take place of a removed piece of mucosa or mucosal defect.

Bone grafting (BG)

A surgical procedure by which bone or a bone substitute is used to take place of a removed piece of bone or bony defect.

Cartilage graft (CG)

Cartilage to take place of a removed piece of bone or bony defect.

Skin graft (SG)

Skin used to take place of a removed piece of skin or skin defect.

Venous graft (VG)

A vein used to take place of a removed segment of artery/vein or arterial/venous defect.

Nerve graft (NG) 

A nerve used to take place of a removed segment of nerve or nerve defect.

Fat graft (FG)

Adipose tissue used to provide volume to a defect or to prevent ingrowth of other tissues into the defect.

 

Other Graft and Related Surgical Terminology


An autograft is tissue transferred from one area to another area of the animal's own body. It has also been called autologous, autoplastic, autogeneic or autogenous graft.
An isograft (or syngraft) is tissue transferred between genetically identical animals. It has also been called isologous, isoplastic, isogeneic or isogenous graft (or synlogous, synplastic, syngeneic or syngenous graft).
An allograft (or homograft) is tissue transferred between genetically dissimilar animals of the same species. It has also been called allologous, alloplastic, allogeneic or allogenous graft (or homologous, homoplastic, homogeneic or homogenous graft).
A xenograft (or heterograft) is tissue transferred between animals of different species. It has also been called xenologous, xenoplastic, xenogeneic or xenogenous graft (or heterologous, heteroplastic, heterogeneic or heterogenous graft).

A particulate graft is a graft containing equally or variably-sized particles.
A full-thickness graft is a graft consisting of the full thickness of a tissue.
A partial-thickness (split-thickness) graft is a graft consisting of a portion of the thickness of a tissue.
A mesh graft is a type of partial-thickness graft in which multiple small incisions have been made to increase stretching and flexibility of the graft.
A composite graft is composed of at least two different tissues, e.g., skin-muscle-and-bone graft.

An implant is something inserted into or applied onto living tissue.
Implantation is the act or process of inserting something into or applying something onto living tissue.
A transplant is something transferred from one part or individual to another.
Transplantation is the act or process of transferring something from one part or individual to another.
The donor site is the site from which a graft is taken.
The recipient bed is the site to which a graft is to be joined.

 


 

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